1008-3456 2020 6 9 18 10.13300/j.cnki.hnwkxb.2020.06.002 article 從經驗積累到分工經濟:農業規模報酬遞增的演變邏輯 From Experience Accumulation to Division of Labor:Evolutionary Logic of Increasing Return to Scale in Agriculture 傳統農業經濟理論認為,農業具有規模報酬不變的特征,這不僅與主流經濟學的內生技術進步和“干中學”等理論概念不符,也無法解釋傳統小農社會的“精耕細作”和現代農業分工帶來的農業增長。文章通過拓展Arrow和楊小凱構建的“干中學”理論模型,分析了無外生技術進步情形下,傳統小農社會和農業分工階段的農戶是如何通過調整農業種植結構和要素配置結構,實現“干中學”過程中的農業規模報酬遞增的。結果表明:(1)當不存在農業勞動力剛性約束時,農戶在租入農地或提高農作物種植頻率以充分利用農業勞動力的過程中,“干中學”會改善勞動生產效率并提高農業規模報酬;(2)進入農業勞動力非農轉移加速階段,農業勞動力剛性約束會使得農業規模報酬從“干中學”誘致的遞增階段進入遞減階段;(3)為克服農業勞動力的剛性約束,農戶會自發參與農業分工,由此加速農業“干中學”和提高農業專業化程度,并誘致農業規模報酬遞增。研究表明,農業并不是一個低效率的被動的產業。 Traditional theories in agricultural economics generally assume there is a constant return to scale in agriculture.Such an assumption is not only inconsistent with the concept of the endogenous technical change and the “learning by doing” models in neoclassical economics,but also can’t explain the agricultural growth caused by the intensive and meticulous farming practices in traditional peasant economy and the division of labor in modern agriculture.By expanding the “learning by doing” models developed by Arrow and Yang,this paper analyzes how farmers can achieve the increasing return to scale in the process of “learning by doing” by adjusting the planting structure and agricultural inputs in a traditional peasant economy and an era of agricultural division of labor without external technical change.The results indicate that (1) without rigid constraint in agricultural labor,the “learning by doing” will improve labor productivity and increase return to scale when the farmers rent more farmland or increase the frequency of crop planting to make full use of agricultural labor force; (2) as agricultural labor force transfer to non-agricultural acceleratedly,the return to scale in agriculture become decreasing after the increase induced by the learning by doing due to the rigid constraint of agricultural labor force; (3) in order to overcome the rigid constraints of agricultural labor force,farmers will spontaneously participate in the agricultural division of labor,so as to speed up the agricultural "learning by doing" and improve the degree of agricultural specialization,which induce the increase of agricultural returns to scale.The findings show that agriculture has never been a passive industry with low efficiency,but evolving industry with constant pursuit of efficiency and growth. 農業規模報酬; “干中學”; 傳統小農社會; 農業分工 agricultural return to scale; “learn by doing”; peasant economy; agricultural division of labor 仇童偉,羅必良 /hznydxsk/article/abstract/20200602
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